Excerpt from : ” Broad Spearpoints and the Transitional Period Cultures in Pennsylvania by John Witthoft 1953.

Lithic material : Spearpoimts of this type are most often of Pennsylvania Jasper and rarely of other material. Rhyolite is the most frequent of the minority materials and rhyolite specimens are ordinarily found in the Schuylkill drainage whear the Jasper examples abound, rarely in the Susquehanna. The Jasper specimens are usually of very carefully selected material, of much better quality then the run of the mill stone at the quarries. Sometimes the Jasper used is a rare varient of the Pennsylvania stone, apparently a phase of the Jasper which was not used by other peoples or in other times. Actually, even chips of this stone are diagnostic of a site of this complex. This peculiar stone sometimes has a greyish white, variegation with opaque brown-red splotches, white opaque spots and dark gray areas. In other examples …

it is a purplish-grey, mottled and streaked with dark blue grey, reddish or blueish zones. Sometimes the mottling is absent and the whole specimen is blue-grey, pink-brown, violet-brown, tan, orange-red, pink, greenish or near black. The molttling pattern may be blotches, dendritic structure in black, veining or brecciation and there is almost no limit to the variations or combinations. We do not know whear they obtained this stone, but it intergrades into normal Jasper in some specimens, and it shows the same fine structure in prepared cross-sections. It either came from one of the Jasper quarries which we have not yet found or from rare variants within one of the known quarries. The last alternative seems unlikely. These broad spears are also frequently made of Jasper which is not like any samples from the known quarries and a glassy bright yellow Jasper used frequently for these spears is the most common of these varieties. An unduly large proportion of spearpoints of this type are made of the chalcedony-like phases of the Jasper and from the chalcedony vein-filling rarely found in sizeable pieces in the Jasper quarries. These peculiar jasper vavieties seem to be restricted to this type of projectile point. I have also seen four specimens of this type of point made from a bright jade-green jasper which I have never seen eleswhere. A single specimen of the broad spear was found in Lancaster county made of pink agatized wood. Spears of this type were rarely made of argillite, quartzite or other rougher stone. Ordinarily they were made from the very finest flint available, with a conspicuous emphasis on attractively colored and mottled materials of some rarity. Actually, broad spear specimens made of materials other than jasper are rare. Judging by collections from the jasper quarries and their associated workshops, the people who made these broad spears were responsible for most of the digging at the quarry near ….., in Berks county, Pa. Their relics are somewhat less conspicuous at Vera Cruz, but they certainly did do a fair portion of the quarrying so apparent at this jasper outcrop. They do not appear to have utilized the Durham or Macungie quarries at all, since the distinctive jasper varients of these outcrops are not found in broad spears and since broad spears and rejects from their manufacture are not conspicuous at these sites. They also appear, judging by certain jaspers represented in the spear points, to have known of other jasper outcrops which have not been found by later Indians or by modern collectors.








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